The major components of fats and oils are triglycerides, which are formed by etherification of glycerol (a trihydroxy alcohol) and fatty acids.

Triglycerides are the most energy-rich nutrients; they provide nine calories per gram, more than twice the amount in protein and carbohydrate. The triglycerides make up the majority (95%) of lipids in food. The structure of these molecules, with its high number of carbon-carbon bonds, makes them an excellent source of energy for aerobic respiration.

Naturally occurring fats are always mixtures of different triglycerides. Triglycerides are classified as lipids, because they are insoluble in water.

In some triglycerides, all three fatty acids are the same. These are known as simple triglycerides; tributyrin, which contains three molecules of butyric acids, is an example.

Other triglycerides contain two different fatty acids and some contain three different fatty acids. These are known as mixed glycerides.

Triglycerides are digested in the intestine by lipases, enzymes that’s specifically degrade fat. Triglycerides digestion and absorption requires bile to free fatty acids and monoglycerides.

The liver also produces and secretes triglycerides, and packages them into lipoproteins. Chylomicrons are synthesized in the intestine, and VLDLs are synthesized in the liver.

Triglycerides are measured in alb test of serum lipids. High levels of blood triglycerides increase the likelihood of blood clots and may indirectly contribute to process leading to clogged arteries.

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